Universiteit Leiden

XML Exercises

The files that are mentioned in the assignments below can all be found in a zipped folder named "XML.zip". If you have done the HTML exercises for DMT, you have probably downloaded this folder already.

Exercise 1.

Draw a tree diagram that represents the structure of the following text.

Date: Sun, 06 Aug 2006 10:03:16 +0100
From: Willard McCarty
To: Humanist Discussion Group
Subject: defining humanities computing

Dear colleagues,

The philosopher F. H. Bradley, in "Association and Thought", Mind 12.47 (1887): 354, arguing in a footnote with the editor of that journal about how to define "a psychical fact or event" in the empirical science of psychology, declares that

A definition in psychology is for me a working definition. It is not expected to have more truth than is required for practice in its science; and if when pressed beyond it contradict itself, that is quite immaterial.

Giving his definition, he then observes,

We see here the impotence of empirical science to justify its principles theoretically.

-- not because this or any other empirical science is inherently inferior, but because in his view metaphysics has no place in it. But what then justifies such a field is its results, which in the case of psychology is a better understanding of how and why humans do what they do, and not only or primarily why we shop for particular products or any other such thing to which psychology might be applied. If humanities computing is an empirical field -- I won't say "science" for obvious reasons -- then by analogy its justification cannot be how and why it is that, say, historians do better history as a result, but how and why scholarly enquiry is different -- better, perhaps, but certainly different -- across all the humanities (by which the historians' improved performance may be explained). Not a metaphysical but a pragmatic philosophy?


Willard McCarty

Exercise 2

Open the XML file "literatureList.xml". First, decide whether the document is well-formed. If the file is ill-formed, correct the errors that are reported by the XML editor.

Exercise 3

On a sheet of paper, draw a tree diagram that represents the stucture of "literatureList.xml".

Exercise 4

Connect the XML file "literatureList.xml" to the schema named "literatureList.rng" by removing the comment tags on line 2 (i.e. the following character sequences: "<!--" and "-->"). Is the document valid? If not, edit the file and make sure that it complies with all the rules in the schema.

Exercise 5

Open "attributes.xml". All the titles of the works of art that are mentioned have been marked as such using the <title> element. Change the document in such a way that it becomes possible to distinguish the titles on the basis of their genre (e.g. plays, paintings, novels, poems etc.).

Exercise 6

Open the XML file "entities.xml". Is the file valid? As you can see, the document contains several non-ASCII-characters. Replace these with XML entities. A list of commonly used Unicode Character codes can be found here.

Exercise 7

Open the notebook named "validation.ipynb" in Jupyter Notebook, and use this notebook to check the validity of the TEI file that you will create for assignment 1.